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Tuesday
Aug302016

Franchise 101: Non-Compete Agreements & Projected Earnings

Franchise 101 News

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August 2016

 

Franchise Lawyers

FRANCHISOR 101:
Non-Competes for Franchisees’ Employees

A "non-compete" provision limits the franchisee's ability, after the franchise agreement ends, to continue to work in a similar type of business to the franchise within a certain time period and geographic area. The purpose is to protect the franchise system for a time against a competitor who "knows the system from the inside." Non-compete provisions are often disfavored by courts. What about non-compete agreements for the employees of franchisees?

Until recently, Jimmy John's, a franchisor of sandwich shops, provided its franchisees with sample non-compete agreements for franchisees to use with their own employees, including order takers, sandwich makers, and delivery drivers. The agreements stated that, for two years after leaving employment, a former employee could not work at any business within a 2-mile radius of a Jimmy John's location if that business made more than 10 percent of its revenue from sandwiches.

However, last June Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan filed suit against Jimmy John's to stop this imposition of "unlawful" and "highly restrictive" non-compete agreements on its low-wage workers. Illinois requires that non-compete agreements be "premised on a legitimate business interest and narrowly tailored in terms of time, activity, and place." The complaint alleges the agreements lock these employees into their jobs and prevent them from seeking higher-paying jobs elsewhere, while giving their employers no reason to increase their wages or benefits.

Shortly thereafter, New York Attorney General Eric T. Schneiderman announced that his office reached a settlement with Jimmy John's regarding the agreements, stating that "Non-compete agreements for low-wage workers are unconscionable." Under the settlement, the franchisor will stop providing the sample agreements to its New York franchisees and will also inform those franchisees that the Attorney General considers such agreements unlawful and void.

In light of these developments and other negative publicity that non-compete agreements for workers have received, franchisors that provide such agreements for their franchisees' use may want to consider whether or not they are enforceable, and whether such agreements constitute good business practice.

FRANCHISEE 101:
How Far Do Earnings Projections Go?

A franchisor is allowed to make "financial performance representations" in its disclosure documents. These figures may project how much money a franchisee is likely to make and can play a critical part in the franchisor's sales process. But if the numbers are way off, what kind of legal recovery can the franchisee get?

In Legacy Academy, Inc. v. Doles-Smith Enterprises, Inc., a Legacy Academy ("Legacy") franchisee suffered losses during the first 3 years of operating its daycare franchise. The franchisee sued, claiming that Legacy had misrepresented the projected cash flow of its franchises in the Franchise Offering Circular they provided to the franchisee. At trial, the franchise owners showed that they paid $40,000 for the franchise and took out $200,000 in loans to cover start-up expenses before the daycare was operational. They also testified that they lost their life savings in order to keep the daycare operational while it lost money. The jury agreed and awarded the franchisee $390,000 in damages.

However, an appeals court found the franchise owners failed to present evidence of damages necessary to receive an award. The court explained that the owners certainly could not recover the difference between what their business made and what the Offering Circular projected because the figures given were only a projection - not a guarantee.

The owners may have been able to recover their costs to buy and start the business - the $40,000 franchise fee and $200,000 in loans - had they asked to "rescind" the franchise agreement: to be put back into the financial place they were before they signed the agreement. But instead, the owners asked for all of the damages they suffered as "consequences" that flowed as a result of the franchisor's misrepresentation. The court concluded that only the owners' ongoing losses due to operating the franchise qualified as such consequential damages. But testimony the franchise owners gave about those particular damages - the "loss of their life savings" - was so vague that a jury had to speculate what the fair recovery should be. Therefore, the appeals court reversed the jury verdict and found in favor of Legacy.

In light of these developments and other negative publicity that non-compete agreements for workers have received, franchisors that provide such agreements for their franchisees' use may want to consider whether or not they are enforceable, and whether such agreements constitute good business practice.

 

This communication published by Lewitt Hackman is intended as general information and may not be relied upon as legal advice, which can only be given by a lawyer based upon all the relevant facts and circumstances of a particular situation. Copyright Lewitt Hackman 2016. All Rights Reserved.

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